Litchfield is a town in Hillsborough County, New Hampshire, United States. The population was 8,271 at the 2010 census, with an estimated population in 2017 of 8,502.
Prior to European settlement, the area was populated by the Abenaki. They were skilled with fishing and were adept in agriculture as well. The New Hampshire Archaeological Society has located over 30 Native American sites along the shore of the Merrimack River in Litchfield, with artifacts several thousands of years old being uncovered.
Most of Litchfield was part of the large town known as Dunstable, which was organized in the 1600s and included land along both sides of the disputed New Hampshire-Massachusetts boundary, and out of which were carved several towns and cities in both states. The area which became Litchfield was originally known as "Naticook". In 1656, William Brenton was granted land which included much of present-day Litchfield. The name was changed to "Brenton's Farm" in 1729, after William Brenton, colonial governor of Rhode Island. The town was first incorporated into Massachusetts on July 4, 1734. The first town meeting was held on Monday, July 29, 1734, at 1 pm at the house of Aquila Underwood to choose town officers. After Brenton's death in 1749, the land was granted to another group of settlers and named "Litchfield" after George Henry Lee, Earl of Lichfield.