Midlothian, Virginia () is an unincorporated area in Chesterfield County, Virginia, U.S. Settled as a coal town, Midlothian village experienced suburbanization effects and is now part of the western suburbs of Richmond, Virginia south of the James River in the Greater Richmond Region. Because of its unincorporated status, Midlothian has no formal government, and the name is used to represent either the original small Village of Midlothian, located near US-60 and Woolridge Road (near Old Buckingham Station), or a vast expanse of Chesterfield County in the northwest portion of Southside Richmond covered by three zip codes (23112, 23113, 23114) served by the Midlothian post office. These zip codes are not coterminous with the Midlothian Magisterial District associated with the Chesterfield County government.
The Village of Midlothian was named for the early 18th-century coal mining enterprises of the Wooldridge brothers. They called their new venture the Mid-Lothian Mining and Manufacturing Company and employed free and enslaved people to do the deadly work of digging underground. Midlothian is the site of the first commercially-mined coal in the Colony of Virginia and in what became the United States.
By the early 18th century, several mines were being developed in Chesterfield County by French Huguenots and others. The mine owners began to export the commodity from the region in the 1730s. Midlothian-area coal heated the U.S. White House for President Thomas Jefferson. The transportation needs of coal shipping stimulated construction of an early toll road, the Manchester Turnpike in 1807; and the Chesterfield Railroad, the state's first in 1831; each to travel the 13 miles (21 km) from the mining community to the port of Manchester, just below the Fall Line of the James River. In the early 1850s, the Richmond and Danville Railroad built Coalfield Station near the mines.