Moscow is a city in Stevens County, Kansas, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 310.
The settlement of Moscow was established in 1887.
One tradition says, the community was named for a member of de Soto's expedition, the maestro de campo (field commander) Luis de Moscoso (the source mistakenly indicates Francisco Coronado southwest expedition, but at this time Moscoso was a member of de Soto's expedition, furthermore he took command of the expedition after de Soto's death). During the settlement name registration there were a series of mistakes. The residents, in their application for a post office, had shortened it to Mosco. A postal clerk in Washington, upon receipt of their petition, being in a helpful spirit, and thinking the hay-seeds in the west didn't know their spelling, added a "w" to the name, changing it to Moscow.
The first post office in Moscow was established on April 28, 1888, when it was moved from Valparaiso (now ghost town), which was located approximately 4 miles (6.4 km) southeast of Moscow.
Moscow moved 8 miles to the north in 1913, where in 1912 the CVR railroad was built, so it was also called "New Moscow".
For the first time in the US Census the placename "Moscow" in Stevens County appeared in 1890, though not as a city but as a township. The Census separated city of Moscow in 1930.
Moscow is located at 37°19′25″N 101°12′21″W (37.3236349, -101.2057164). According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.18 square miles (0.47 km2), all of it land.
The town is located in southwest Kansas in the Rolling Cropland and Range region of the Great Plains. The town is in the shape of a right triangle.
The northwest border of the Moscow adjoins U.S. Route 56.