Peru is a town in Bennington County, Vermont, United States. The population was 375 at the 2010 census. Originally known as Bromley, the town name was changed to "Peru" by the land grantees as a way of attracting land buyers to an area that had been described as 36 square miles (93 km2) of "trees, bears and mountain lions".
Peru is located in northeastern Bennington County, bordered by Rutland County to the north. The crest of the Green Mountains runs from north to the south through the western half of the town, traversed by the Long Trail/Appalachian Trail. 3,300-foot-high (1,000 m) Bromley Mountain and its ski area are in the southern part of the town, and 3,392-foot (1,034 m) Styles Peak and 3,428-foot (1,045 m) Peru Peak are to the north. Vermont Route 11 crosses the southeastern part of the town, past Bromley Mountain Ski Area.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 37.3 square miles (96.7 km2), of which 37.2 square miles (96.4 km2) is land and 0.1 square miles (0.3 km2), or 0.32%, is water.
As of the census of 2000, there were 416 people, 157 households, and 118 families residing in the town. The population density was 11.1 people per square mile (4.3/km2). There were 445 housing units at an average density of 11.9 per square mile (4.6/km2). The racial makeup of the town was 97.84% White, 0.24% Asian, and 1.92% from two or more races.