Rowlesburg is a town and former railroad town in Preston County, West Virginia, United States, along the Cheat River. The population was 584 at the 2010 census.
Rowlesburg was incorporated as a town in 1858. It was named for Thomas Rowle, a railroad engineer.
During the American Civil War, its two Baltimore and Ohio Railroad bridges (crossing the Cheat River and Tray Run) were of great strategic importance. Confederate troops failed to reach Rowlesburg in 1861, but the Jones-Imboden raid did reach the town. However, Union troops and townsmen called out of their churches on Sunday morning, April 26, 1863 successfully defended the town and "Lincoln's lifeline," so Gen. Jones retreated and later court-martialed a subordinate.
The Downtown Rowlesburg Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2005.
Rowlesburg is located at 39°21′0″N 79°40′22″W (39.350119, -79.672892).
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 1.10 square miles (2.85 km2), of which 1.01 square miles (2.62 km2) is land and 0.09 square miles (0.23 km2) is water.
The climate in this area displays significant differences between summer average high temperatures and winter average lows; adequate precipitation falls year round. In winter months, precipitation is often in the form of snow or sleet. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Rowlesburg has a continental climate, abbreviated "Dfb" on climate maps.
At Rowlesburg, the Cheat River is considered to be at flood stage when the gauge height is 16 feet.