Aliceville is a city in Pickens County, Alabama, United States, located thirty-six miles west of Tuscaloosa. At the 2010 census its population was 2,486, down from 2,567 in 2000. Founded in the first decade of the 20th century and incorporated in 1907, the city has become notable for its World War II-era prisoner-of-war camp, Camp Aliceville. Since 1930, it has been the largest municipality in Pickens County.
In 1902 the settlement that would become Aliceville was founded with the opening of a single store. The city was named in honor of the wife of John T. Cochrane, founder of the Alabama, Tennessee and Northern Railroad and moving force behind the construction of the short line from Carrollton, Alabama to Aliceville. Within two years of the completion of the short line, Aliceville had grown to what the Montgomery Advertiser called in 1905 "a town of considerable pretensions. There are about a dozen stores, a bank, public buildings and numerous enterprises."
In 1907 an election was scheduled to allow the citizens of Aliceville to decide whether their community should be incorporated. Incorporation was approved by the voters, and on March 19, 1907, a municipal election was held to choose municipal officers, including a mayor and five aldermen: T.H. Sommerville, J.M. Summerville, A. Hood, J.D. Sanders, W.E. Stringfellow, and J.B. Cunningham, respectively.
In August 1907 a black man named Gibson was lynched in Aliceville, which caused civil disturbances in the community. Rumors swirled that "the negroes were arming themselves," and a group of blacks on horseback were fired on in the street. Gibson's father was subsequently "ordered to leave the county on account of some impertient (sic) talk."
By March 1908, municipal officials had decreed that all streets should have ten-foot sidewalks built on both sides.