Andalusia is a city in and the county seat of Covington County, Alabama, United States. At the 2010 census the population was 9,015.
Andalusia was first settled in 1841 after flooding of the Conecuh River and the surrounding lowlands forced citizens to move to higher ground. The county seat was moved from Montezuma to Andalusia in 1844. The new town was originally called "New Site" but was known as Andalusia by the time a post office was established in 1846.
Andalusia, likely got its name from Spanish explorers or settlers since the land where the town is located was part of Spanish Florida until Pinckney's Treaty in 1795. Prior to this treaty, the Spanish Empire claimed all land up to 32.22 degrees north, which would include present day Andalusia which is at 31.31 degrees north. Andalusia shares the name of Andalusia, a large southern autonomous community of Spain.
Andalusia was incorporated as a town in 1884.
In 1899, two railroad lines arrived in Andalusia, the Central of Georgia and the L & N Railroad, and the town began to grow.
The Avant House is one of seven sites in Andalusia listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Andalusia is located slightly northwest of the center of Covington County at 31°18′N 86°29′W (31.309, -86.479). According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 19.8 square miles (51.3 km2), of which 19.7 square miles (50.9 km2) is land and 0.15 square miles (0.4 km2), or 0.79%, is water.
Andalusia is served by the South Alabama Regional Airport, formerly known as the Andalusia-Opp Airport, located approximately 5 miles (8 km) east of the central business district.
The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and generally mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Andalusia has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps.
Andalusia first appeared on the 1880 U.S. Census as an unincorporated village.