Anderson, named after Chief William Anderson, is a city in and the county seat of Madison County, Indiana, United States. It is the principal city of the Anderson, Indiana Metropolitan Statistical Area which encompasses Madison County. Anderson is the headquarters of the Church of God (Anderson) and home of Anderson University, which is affiliated with the Christian denomination. Highlights of the city include the historic Paramount Theatre and the Gruenewald Historic House.
The population was 56,129 at the 2010 census, down from 70,000 in 1970.
Prior to the organization of Madison County, William Conner entered the land upon which Anderson is located. Conner later sold the ground to John and Sarah Berry, who donated 32 acres (13 ha) of their land to Madison County on the condition that the county seat be moved from Pendleton to Anderson. John Berry laid out the first plat of Anderson on November 7, 1827. In 1828 the seat of justice was moved from Pendleton to Anderson.
The city is named for Chief William "Adam" Anderson, whose mother was a Delaware Indian and whose father was of Swedish descent. Chief Anderson's name in Lenape was Kikthawenund meaning "creaking boughs".