Arthur is a village in Douglas and Moultrie Counties in Illinois, with Arthur's primary street, Vine Street, being the county line. The population was 2,288 at the 2010 census. The Arthur area is home to the largest and oldest Amish community in Illinois, which was founded in the 1860s.
In 1877, the population was approximately 300 persons. The community was incorporated as a village in April of that year.
The first village election was held on June 12, 1877 and C. G. McComb, Matt Hunsaker, W. H. Reeder, H. C. Jones, J. W. Sears, and Nick Thompson were elected trustees, and J. W. Barrum, clerk.
The original town was laid out on the farms of M. H. Warren on the Moultrie side, and the Pendleton Murphy farm on the Douglas County side. Early additions to the town included those by Murphy, Reeves, Hunsaker, Gibson, Warren, Reeder, followed by Kensington, Campbell, Boyd, Bennet, Fitzjarrald, and others.
An F2 tornado struck two miles south of Cadwell and moved northeast four miles south of Arthur on April 7, 1998. It lifted near Bourbon.