Brownsville () is a city in Cameron County in the U.S. state of Texas. It is on the western Gulf Coast in South Texas, adjacent to the border with Matamoros, Mexico. The city covers 81.528 square miles (211.157 km2) and has a population of 182,781 as of 2019. It is the 131st-largest city in the United States and 16th-largest in Texas. It is part of the Brownsville–Matamoros conurbation. The city is known for its year-round subtropical climate, deep-water seaport, and Hispanic culture.
The city was founded in 1848 by American entrepreneur Charles Stillman after he developed a successful river boat company nearby. It was named after Major Jacob Brown, who fought and died while serving as a U.S. Army soldier during the Mexican–American War (1846–48). Due to its county seat classification, the city and county government are major employers. Other primary employers fall within the service, trade and manufacturing industries, including a growing aerospace and space transportation sector.