Brunswick is a city in southwestern Frederick County, Maryland, United States. The city is located on the north bank of the Potomac River; Loudoun County, Virginia occupies the opposite shore. The population of Brunswick was 5,870 at the 2010 census. There are three schools serving Brunswick: Brunswick Elementary School, Brunswick Middle School, And Brunswick High School.
The area now known as Brunswick was originally home to the Susquehanna Indians. In 1728 the first settlement was built, and the region became known as Eel Town, because the natives would fish for eel in the Potomac River. A grant to the land was then given to John Hawkins by George II of Great Britain on August 10, 1753. The grant had the name "Hawkins Merry-Peep-o-Day".
The land was sold and Leonard Smith platted it in 1787 with the name of “Berlin,” as many Germans settled in the area. The name “Berlin,” however, could not be used for mail as there was already a Berlin on the Eastern Shore of Maryland, so the post office changed the name to "Barry." The town continued to grow and was incorporated April 18, 1890 with the name “Brunswick.”
Established along the now-defunct Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, the city became a hub for the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, which built a six-mile-long rail yard along the Potomac from 1891 to 1912, boosting the population to over 5,000, and making Brunswick virtually a company town. The railroad reduced its yard operations in the 1950s.