Buffalo is a city in Johnson County, Wyoming, United States. The population was 4,585 at the 2010 census. It is the county seat of Johnson County. In recent years, the town has boomed economically due to methane production from the coal bed methane extraction method used in the Powder River Basin and surrounding areas. However; with the recent decline of methane production, Buffalo's population has stabilized and has had little change in the past decade. Even though energy is a vital part of its economy, agriculture and tourism are two other major components. Buffalo is at the foot of the Bighorn Mountains, so recreation is a short distance away. Many generational ranchers still run cattle and sheep over the highly productive terrain.
As of the census of 2010, there were 4,585 people, 2,080 households, and 1,198 families living in the city. The population density was 1,028.0 inhabitants per square mile (396.9/km2).