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Cayuga is a town in Eugene Township, Vermillion County, in the U.S. state of Indiana. The population was 1,162 at the 2010 census.
When the town was laid out on September 20, 1827, it was called Eugene Station, though it was also called Osonimon after an Indian chief of that name. It was later renamed after the village of Cayuga and Cayuga Lake in the state of New York; an early settler named John Groenendyke had originally come from Cayuga County, New York, and moved to Vigo County in 1818, then in 1819 moved to the area that later became Vermillion County. The name is based on the Iroquois term Gwa-u-geh, meaning "the place of taking out" (in terms of a portage). Local legend attributes the name to the sound made by the horn of a Ford Model T. The town was incorporated around 1891.
The Cayuga post office has been in operation since 1886.
Cayuga is located at the intersection of Indiana State Road 63 and Indiana State Road 234, in the northern half of the county, near the confluence of the Vermillion and Wabash rivers.
According to the 2010 census, Cayuga has a total area of 1.01 square miles (2.62 km2), all land.
As of the census of 2010, there were 1,162 people, 475 households, and 329 families living in the town. The population density was 1,150.5 inhabitants per square mile (444.2/km2). There were 523 housing units at an average density of 517.8 per square mile (199.9/km2). The racial makeup of the town was 97.8% White, 0.2% African American, 0.5% Native American, 0.1% Asian, 0.3% from other races, and 1.2% from two or more races.