Christiansburg (formerly Hans Meadows) is a town in Montgomery County, Virginia, United States. The population was 21,041 at the 2010 census. It is the county seat of Montgomery County. Christiansburg, Blacksburg and the city of Radford are the three principal municipalities of the Blacksburg–Christiansburg Metropolitan Statistical Area, which encompasses those municipalities, all of Montgomery County, and three other counties.
In 1671, the New River – one of the world's oldest rivers – was discovered by early settlers of German, French, Scot-Irish and English descent. Along the river, there were several Native American encampments, and conflicts were common between those tribes and the early settlers. As settlers began moving into present-day Christiansburg, they discovered that area was also inhabited by the Shawnee and other Native American tribes.
In the late 1600s, Dutch priest Friar Hans arrived in the region; it was named Hans Meadow after him in the early 1700s.
In the 18th century, the region was settled by pioneers from Pennsylvania and eastern Virginia. In 1776, Montgomery County was formed from part of Fincastle County.