Columbia is a town in Houston County, Alabama, United States. It is part of the Dothan, Alabama Metropolitan Statistical Area. At the 2010 census the population was 740, down from 804 in 2000.
Founded in 1820, Columbia served as a major trading center for communities throughout the Wiregrass Region of Alabama between 1822–1833, which coincided as its time as Henry County seat. Henry County which then comprised portions of present-day Covington, Dale, Barbour, Coffee, Crenshaw, Bullock, Geneva, and Houston counties. It lost the county seat status to Abbeville in 1833.
Bordering the State of Georgia and the Chattahoochee River, Columbia was a major port-of-call for steamboats and was known to many as "Old Columbia". The town was incorporated on April 29, 1880 and was the center of education, culture, commerce, and trade. Columbia was the largest town in the area during the 19th century and remains one of the area's oldest continuously operating municipalities.
Columbia received its first cotton textile mill in 1891 and its first electric plant in 1892.