Dongola is a village in Union County, Illinois, United States. The population was 726 at the 2010 census.
Dongola was laid out in 1857 as a stop along the Illinois Central Railroad. A post office known as "Unionville" had been established in 1855, but the name was changed to "Dongola," after Dongola, Sudan.
Dongola is located at 37°21′40″N 89°9′52″W (37.361243, -89.164574). The village is situated north of Cairo at the intersection of Old U.S. Highway 51 (signed as Front Street in Dongola) and Interstate 57. The point at which Union, Pulaski, and Alexander counties meet is located just to the southwest. Dongola Lake, created by a small dam along Little Creek, lies to the west of Dongola.
According to the 2010 census, Dongola has a total area of 1.147 square miles (2.97 km2), of which 1.09 square miles (2.82 km2) (or 95.03%) is land and 0.057 square miles (0.15 km2) (or 4.97%) is water.
As of the census of 2000, there were 806 people, 330 households, and 222 families residing in the village. The population density was 728.8 people per square mile (280.4/km2). There were 354 housing units at an average density of 320.1 per square mile (123.1/km2).