Eufaula is the largest city in Barbour County, Alabama, United States. As of the 2010 census the city's population was 13,137.
The site along the Chattahoochee River that is now modern-day Eufaula was occupied by three Muscogee Creek tribes, including the Eufaulas. By the 1820s the land was part of the Creek Indian Territory and supposedly off-limits to white settlement. By 1827 enough illegal white settlement had occurred that the Creeks appealed to the federal government for protection of their property rights. In July of that year, federal troops were sent to the Eufaula area to remove the settlers by force of arms, a conflict known as the "Intruders War".
The Creeks signed the Treaty of Washington in 1826, ceding most of their land in Georgia and eastern Alabama to the United States, but it was not fully effective in practice until the late 1820s. The 1832 Treaty of Cusseta, by which the Creeks ceded all land east of the Mississippi River to the United States, allowed white settlers to legally buy land from the Creek. However, the treaty's terms did not require any natives to relocate. By 1835 the land on which the town was built had been mostly purchased by white settlers, and had a store, owned in part by William Irwin, after whom the new settlement was named "Irwinton".
Significant numbers of Jewish settlers came to Eufaula in the middle of the nineteenth century from Germany and from neighboring states. The community founded a cemetery; the first burial took place in 1845.
By the mid 1830s downtown Irwinton was platted out and development was well underway.