Fayetteville is a city in Fayette County, Texas, roughly halfway between Austin and Houston. The population was 258 at the 2010 census.
The town is located in an area that was originally granted to Alex Thompson and George Cumberland. Fayetteville's first immigrant settlers were the families headed by John Crier, James Cummins, and James J. Ross, three of the Old Three Hundred. The settlement began at the location of a stagecoach stop on an old road between San Felipe and Bastrop.
Even though Fayette County was named after General Lafayette, the Revolutionary War hero, the community was named in 1844 after Fayetteville, North Carolina, for a prominent citizen of the time, who had surveyed the community, named its streets, and donated lots for the Fayetteville Academy and the town's multidenominational Union Church.
Fayetteville was incorporated in 1882.
The town made national news during World War I. As reprinted by Stars and Stripes in its March 15, 1918 issue, the town's mayor, W. C. Langlotz, and ten of the town's citizens were charged with espionage. They were arrested following the display of the flag of the German Empire over the entryway of the Germania club in Fayetteville. The group pleaded "not guilty": the mayor said the flag had been displayed by mistake.
The majority of the area within the town boundaries was designated the Fayetteville Historic District and listed on the National Register of Historic Places on July 10, 2008.
Fayetteville is located in eastern Fayette County at 29°54′18″N 96°40′30″W (29.904922, -96.675119). Texas State Highway 159 passes through the center of town, leading northeast 12 miles (19 km) to Industry and northwest, then southwest a total of 16 miles (26 km) to La Grange, the county seat.