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Hanover is a town located along the Connecticut River in Grafton County, New Hampshire, United States. As of the 2010 census, its population was 11,260. The town is home to Dartmouth College, the US Army Corps of Engineers Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, and Hanover High School. The Appalachian Trail crosses the town, connecting with a number of trails and nature preserves.
Most of the population resides in the Hanover census-designated place (CDP) — the main village of the town. Located at the junctions of New Hampshire routes 10, 10A, and 120, the Hanover CDP recorded a population of 8,636 people at the 2010 census. The town also contains the smaller villages of Etna and Hanover Center.
Hanover was chartered by Governor Benning Wentworth on July 4, 1761, and in 1765–1766 its first European inhabitants arrived, the majority from Connecticut. Although the surface is uneven, the town developed into an agricultural community. Dartmouth College was established in 1769 beside the Common at a village called "the Plain"—an extensive and level tract of land a mile (1.6 kilometers) from the Connecticut River, and about 150 feet (46 m) above it.
At one point in its history, the southwest corner of Hanover was known as "Dresden", which in the 1780s joined other disgruntled New Hampshire towns along the Connecticut River that briefly defected to what was then the independent Vermont Republic.