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Louisburg is a city in Miami County, Kansas, United States and is part of the Kansas City metropolitan area. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 4,315.
Prior to the American Civil War, the land of what is now called Louisburg was part of an area reserved for members of various tribes of Native Americans who were ceding their lands in Missouri, Illinois, and Indiana. Settling there were the Peoria, Wea, Piankeshaw, and Kaskaskia tribes which together eventually became the Confederated Tribe of Peoria. Traders and missionaries often visited the area, and by 1854 Euro-American farmers began moving nearby, establishing homes. Upon the organization of the state of Kansas in 1861, the Confederated Tribes were being charged with taxes, and the new state laws conflicted with their own. By 1866, following the Civil War, the government moved the Confederated Tribe of Peoria to Oklahoma, and the land they once occupied was sold to settlers. A community of homes resulted by 1867, and was called St. Louis. Soon, it was often referred to as New St. Louis or Little St.