Matherville is a village in Mercer County, Illinois, United States. The population was 723 at the 2010 census.
Matherville is located at 41°15′37″N 90°36′21″W (41.260255, -90.605874).
According to the 2010 census, Matherville has a total area of 0.398 square miles (1.03 km2), of which 0.39 square miles (1.01 km2) (or 97.99%) is land and 0.008 square miles (0.02 km2) (or 2.01%) is water.
At the 2000 census there were 772 people, 290 households, and 216 families living in the village. The population density was 1,968.7 people per square mile (764.3/km2). There were 301 housing units at an average density of 767.6 per square mile (298.0/km2). The racial makeup of the village was 98.45% White, 0.26% Asian, 0.52% from other races, and 0.78% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.04%. - - Of the 290 households 45.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.5% were married couples living together, 15.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 25.5% were non-families. 21.7% of households were one person and 10.7% were one person aged 65 or older. The average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.06.