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New Boston is a city in Mercer County, Illinois, United States on the Mississippi River. The population was 683 at the 2010 census, up from 632 at the 2000 census.
New Boston is located at 41°10′10″N 90°59′48″W (41.169570, -90.996709).
According to the 2010 census, New Boston has a total area of 1.393 square miles (3.61 km2), of which 0.93 square miles (2.41 km2) (or 66.76%) is land and 0.463 square miles (1.20 km2) (or 33.24%) is water.
The city is located at the state line, across the Mississippi River from Iowa.
New Boston is five miles south of Lock and Dam No. 17 on the Mississippi River. New Boston is located on the east bank of the Mississippi at the confluence of the Mississippi and Eliza Creek. Directly across the Mississippi is the mouth of the Iowa River. Much of the natural area surrounding New Boston is part of the Port Louisa National Wildlife Refuge. The river valley at New Boston is surrounded on both sides by gently rolling bluffs interspersed with rich parcels of wetlands that provide critical wildlife habitat; especially for migratory birds.
Boston Bay is an area of water adjacent to the Mississippi River, at the mouth of Eliza Creek, to the north of New Boston. It is across the Mississippi from its confluence with the Iowa River.
As of the census of 2000, there were 632 people, 269 households, and 177 families residing in the city.