Peru is a town in Bennington County, Vermont, United States. The population was 375 at the 2010 census. Originally known as Bromley, the town name was changed to "Peru" by the land grantees as a way of attracting land buyers to an area that had been described as 36 square miles (93 km2) of "trees, bears and mountain lions".
The town was chartered with the name Bromley in 1761 by Benning Wentworth, governor of the Province of New Hampshire. The first white settlement is said to have been in 1773, by William Barlow of Woodstock, Connecticut. The town of Bromley was organized at a town meeting in March 1802. As of the autumn of 1802 there were 14 families living in the town. In late 1803 or early 1804 the name of the town was changed to Peru. The new name was adopted to attract more people to the town by associating it with the South American province of Peru, which was considered to be a place of great wealth, apparently due to the rich silver mining industry there.
Peru is located in northeastern Bennington County, bordered by Rutland County to the north. The crest of the Green Mountains runs from north to the south through the western half of the town, traversed by the Long Trail/Appalachian Trail.