Randolph is a township in Morris County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the township's population was 25,734, reflecting an increase of 887 (+3.6%) from the 24,847 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 4,873 (+24.4%) from the 19,974 counted in the 1990 Census.
According to the 2010 Census, Randolph was the 3rd most-populous municipality in Morris County and its 21 square miles (54 km2) land area is the 8th largest in the county. The community maintains a diverse population of nearly 26,000 residents.
Established in 1968, the County College of Morris is located on 200+ acres in the northern part of the township along Route 10.
In 2013, in the Coldwell Banker edition of, “Best Places to Live in New Jersey for Booming Suburbs.” Randolph was the number one ranked town in Morris County and fourth overall in the state citing "job growth, high percentage of home ownership, good schools, access to local shopping and community safety." Niche.com ranked Randolph amongst the Top 50 in its 2019 rankings of the "Best Places to Live" in New Jersey.
The earliest known inhabitants of what is now Randolph were the Lenni Lenape Native Americans. The earliest European settlers of what is now Randolph were Quakers and one of the pioneering landowners was Hartshorne Fitz-Randolph, who purchased 1,000 acres (4.0 km2) of what would become the township in the Mine Hill area in 1753, later becoming the namesake of the township. New Jersey's first iron mine was established in Randolph in 1713, and for hundreds of years the mines fostered the development of the township, providing the raw materials for weapons used by the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. During the war, the area was a supply point for George Washington's army during their winter encampment in nearby Jockey Hollow.
Randolph was incorporated as a township by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on January 1, 1806, from portions of Mendham Township. Portions of the township were taken on April 1, 1869, to create Dover Town within the township, which became an independent municipality as of March 5, 1896. Other portions of the township were taken to create Port Oram (June 26, 1895, now Wharton), Mine Hill Township (March 2, 1923) and Victory Gardens (June 20, 1951). The creation of Victory Gardens created a small triangular exclave of the township, surrounded by Victory Gardens to the southeast and Dover to the northwest.
Randolph became a vacation haven in the early part of the 20th century, known for its woods, ponds, lakes and air. Through the 1950s, farms, large hotels and bungalow colonies dotted the community.