Red Bank is a borough in Monmouth County, New Jersey, incorporated in 1908 and located on the Navesink River, the area's original transportation route to the ocean and other ports. As of the 2010 United States Census, the borough had a population of 12,206, reflecting an increase of 362 (+3.1%) from the 11,844 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 1,208 (+11.4%) from the 10,636 counted in the 1990 Census.
Red Bank was originally formed as a town on March 17, 1870, from portions of Shrewsbury Township. On February 14, 1879, Red Bank became Shrewsbury City, a portion of Shrewsbury Township; however, this only lasted until May 15, 1879, when Red Bank regained its independence. On March 10, 1908, Red Bank was formed as a borough by an act of the New Jersey Legislature and was set off from Shrewsbury Township. The borough was named for the red soil along the Navesink River.
Red Bank has been occupied by indigenous peoples for thousands of years. In historic times, the area of modern-day Red Bank was the territory of the Algonquian-speaking Lenape Native Americans, also called the Delaware by the English. The Lenape lived in the area between the Navesink River and the Shrewsbury River in an area that they called Navarumsunk. The Native Americans traded freely with European settlers from England and the Dutch Republic in the mid-17th century, who purchased land in the area.
Originally part of "Shrewsbury Towne", Red Bank was named in 1736, when Thomas Morford sold Joseph French "a lot of over three acres on the west side of the highway that goes to the red bank." Red Bank was settled by English colonists beginning in the 17th century and became a center for shipbuilding. Its population grew rapidly after 1809, when regularly scheduled passenger ships were established to serve the route to Manhattan.
By 1844, Red Bank had become a commercial and manufacturing center, focused on textiles, tanning, furs, and other goods for sale in Manhattan. With the dredging of the Navesink River about 1845, Red Bank became a port from which steamboats transported commuters to work in Manhattan. Red Bank grew in size as a result of this, as well as the effects of construction of a railway in the town by the Raritan and Delaware Bay Railroad in 1860.
During the 20th century, Red Bank was a strong cultural, economic, and political center in Monmouth County, until it was hindered by the economic recession that began in 1987.