Roan Mountain is a census-designated place (CDP) in Carter County, Tennessee, United States. The population was 1,360 at the 2010 census. It is part of the Johnson City Metropolitan Statistical Area, which is a component of the Johnson City–Kingsport–Bristol, TN-VA Combined Statistical Area – commonly known as the Tri-Cities region.
In September 1780, the Overmountain Men— a group of American soldiers from the trans-Appalachian frontier who fought during the American Revolution— passed through Roan Mountain en route to North Carolina, where they would engage and defeat a group of British loyalists at the Battle of Kings Mountain. On the night of September 26, this force camped at Shelving Rock, between what is now the Roan Mountain CDP and Roan Mountain State Park, where a rocky outcropping provided a convenient place for the soldiers to store their weapons and gunpowder. The site is now part of the Overmountain Victory National Historic Trail, and the field where the soldiers camped is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
During the 1870s, John T. Wilder, an industrialist and former Union general, began purchasing large tracts of iron ore-rich lands in the Roan Mountain area, and established several mining operations in the region. In the early 1880s, he established the Roan Mountain community, originally known as Roan Mountain Station, as a stop along the East Tennessee and Western North Carolina Railroad ("Tweetsie"). He laid out streets, planted trees, and built a hotel, the Roan Mountain Inn, as well as a house for his family (the house still stands at the corner of Main and Stratton). In 1885, he established a resort atop the mountain, the Cloudland Hotel, which catered to people seeking relief from hay fever and other seasonal allergies.
Roan Mountain is located in northeast Tennessee at 36°11′39″N 82°4′6″W (36.194219, -82.068417). According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 6.6 square miles (17.2 km2), all land.