Rockingham is a town in Windham County, Vermont, United States, along the Connecticut River. The population was 5,282 at the 2010 census. Rockingham includes the incorporated villages of Bellows Falls and Saxtons River, as well as a large rural area west of Interstate 91.
Rockingham has no formal town center, instead town offices and the Rockingham Public Library are located in the village of Bellows Falls. The approximate center is the Rockingham Meeting House on Route 103, a popular east–west route across the state. The Meeting House was built in Rockingham Village, once the main settlement in the town, but with the increased use of water power, population shifted to other villages located on the two rivers in town. Most of what was left of Rockingham Village (over a dozen buildings, also called the Old Town) burned in a fire on April 14, 1908; the fire came close to the Meeting House but it was saved. The houses, hotel and store that burned were not rebuilt.
One of the New Hampshire grants, it was chartered by Governor Benning Wentworth on December 28, 1752 and named for Lord Rockingham. The township was granted to Samuel Johnson and 72 others. First settled in 1753, pioneers fished for salmon and shad.