Tilghman Island is an island in the Chesapeake Bay. It is part of Talbot County, Maryland, United States.
Initially known as Great Choptank Island, the island became identified with a series of local families. It was owned by Matthew Tilghman's family from 1752 and has been known as Tilghman Island ever since. During the War of 1812 the island was briefly occupied by the British, who obtained provisions for their military forces. The community of Tilghman appeared in the 1840s. The economy shifted from farming to greater reliance on oystering and fishing as markets developed in Baltimore and Washington, aided by steamboat service in the 1890s.
The E.C. Collier, the Elsworth, the Hilda M. Willing, the Kathryn, the Maggie Lee, the Minnie V, the Nellie L. Byrd, the Paw Paw Cove Site, the Ralph T. Webster, the Rebecca T. Ruark, the Reliance, the Ruby G. Ford, Sharps Island Light, the Sigsbee, and the Virginia W are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Tilghman Island is located at 38°42′32″N 76°20′6″W (38.708795, −76.335016).
According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 2.8 square miles (7.3 km2), of which 2.7 square miles (7.0 km2) is land and 0.1 square miles (0.26 km2) (4.91%) is water.
As of the census of 2010, there were 784 people, 357 households, and 246 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 315.9 people per square mile (122.1/km2). There were 560 housing units at an average density of 207.1/sq mi (80.1/km2). The racial makeup of the CDP was 97.3% White, 1.4% African American, 0.5% Native American, 0.5% Asian, and 0.3% from two or more races.