Washington Court House (often abbreviated as Washington C.H.) is a city in Union Township, Fayette County, Ohio, United States. It is the county seat of Fayette County and is located between Cincinnati and Columbus. The population was 14,192 in 2010 at the 2010 census. The area was initially settled by Virginia veterans of the American Revolution, who received the land from the government as payment for their service in the war.
Officially named Washington as far back as 1910, the "Court House" suffix was used to distinguish the city from other places in the state with "Washington" in their name (Ohio also has an Old Washington, New Washington, Washingtonville, and Port Washington). The suffix is attributed to settlers who had come from Virginia, where "Court House" was used with county seats (e.g. Appomattox Court House). "Washington C. H." was added to maps and postal guides, and the de facto use of "Washington Court House" persisted over time. The name was made official when the city adopted a new charter in the early 2000s. "Washington Court House" is the longest city name in the state of Ohio.
Washington Court House's first settlers appear to have been Edward Smith Sr., and his family, who emigrated from Pennsylvania in 1810. Smith and his family constructed a crude house in the thick woodlands near Paint Creek, but their efforts to clear the land were interrupted by his departure for military service in the War of 1812.