Amherst is a town in Hillsborough County in the state of New Hampshire, United States. The population was 11,201 at the 2010 census. Amherst is home to Ponemah Bog Wildlife Sanctuary, Hodgman State Forest, the Joe English Reservation and Baboosic Lake.
The village of Amherst, where 613 people lived at the 2010 census, is defined as the Amherst census-designated place. It is also listed on the National Register of Historic Places as Amherst Village Historic District.
Like many New England towns, Amherst was the result of a land grant given to soldiers – in this case, to soldiers in 1728 who had participated in King Philip's War. Settled about 1733, it was first called "Narragansett Number 3," and later "Souhegan Number 3." In 1741, settlers formed the Congregational church and hired the first minister. Chartered on January 18, 1760, by Colonial Governor Benning Wentworth, the town was named for General Lord Amherst, who commanded British forces in North America during the French and Indian War. Lord Amherst is also known for initiating the practice of giving smallpox blankets to Native Americans in an effort "to Extirpate this Execrable Race" (as quoted from his letter to Colonel Henry Bouquet on July 16, 1763).
In 1770, Amherst became the county seat of Hillsborough County, due largely to its location on the county's major east-west road.