Arlington is a town in Bennington County, Vermont, United States. The population was 2,317 at the 2010 census.
The town of Arlington was chartered July 28, 1761, by New Hampshire Governor Benning Wentworth, as part of the New Hampshire Grants. In 1777, Arlington became the first capital of the Vermont Republic.
Among the first settlers in Arlington were Captain Jehiel Hawley and his family, who had settled there by 1764. They were Anglicans and had fled Roxbury, Connecticut, because of the oppressive requirements of the established Congregational church. At a Proprietor's meeting in 1764, the town voted to give 50 acres (20 hectares) of land to any man who would set up a gristmill in what is now East Arlington. This offer was accepted by Remember Baker (first cousin of Ethan Allen), who built a grist and sawmill.
In the years leading up to the American Revolution, both New York and New Hampshire laid claim to lands comprising current-day Vermont. The Province of New York began to grant land in 1765, lagging New Hampshire by four years. Arlington was, for the most part, settled by Anglicans from Roxbury, Newtown, and Milford, Connecticut, with ownership rights derived from the New Hampshire Grants.