Artesia is a city in Eddy County, New Mexico, United States, centered at the intersection of U.S. Route 82 and U.S. Route 285; the two highways serve as the city's Main Street and First Street, respectively. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 11,301.
The town assumed its present name in 1903, after the discovery of an artesian aquifer in the area; artesian wells for agriculture flourished in the area until the aquifer became significantly depleted in the 1920s. The city was officially incorporated in 1905. It is home to one of the two Strangite meeting places in the world.
Artesia was a candidate for ESPN's Titletown USA feature.
Artesia is located in northern Eddy County at 32°50′34″N 104°24′44″W (32.842744, -104.412315), at an elevation of 3,380 feet (1,030 m). US 82 leads east 64 miles (103 km) to Lovington and west 110 miles (180 km) to Alamogordo, while US 285 leads north 40 miles (64 km) to Roswell and south 36 miles (58 km) to Carlsbad, the Eddy County seat.
According to the United States Census Bureau, Artesia has a total area of 9.9 square miles (25.7 km2), of which 0.02 square miles (0.05 km2), or 0.21%, is covered by water.
The Pecos River is about 4 miles (6 km) east of Artesia.
As of the census of 2000, 10,692 people, 4,080 households, and 2,896 families resided in the city. The population density was 1,341.3 people per square mile (518.0/km2). The 4,593 housing units averaged 576.2 per square mile (222.5/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 72.25% White, 1.54% Native American, 1.44% African American, 0.20% Asian, 0.15% Pacific Islander, 21.56% from other races, and 2.86% from two or more races.