Barton is a town in Orleans County, Vermont, United States. The population was 2,780 at the 2000 census. The town includes two incorporated villages, Barton and Orleans. Approximately 30% of the town's population lived in the village of Orleans, 27% in the village of Barton, and 43% outside the villages. Only four other towns in the state contain two incorporated villages.
The headquarters of the state-recognized Nulhegan Abenaki Tribe is located here.
The Abenaki and their ancestors had been in this area for 12,000 years. They were part of the large Wabanaki confederacy of related Algonguian-speaking peoples that extended into what is now Canada. In 2011 and 2012 the state of Vermont officially recognized several Abenaki tribes. The Nulhegan Abenaki Tribe has their headquarters here.
Early European traders and colonists were French. Anglo-Americans began to enter the area later in the eighteenth century. Both groups pushed the Abenaki aside when they wanted the land, and the natives suffered high mortality due to new infectious diseases.