Booneville is a city in Logan County, Arkansas, United States and the county seat of its southern district. Located in the Arkansas River Valley between the Ouachita and Ozark Mountains, the city is one of the oldest in western Arkansas. The city's economy was first based upon the railroad and Arkansas State Tuberculosis Sanatorium. It has developed a diverse economy of small businesses and light industry. Booneville's population was 3,990 at the 2010 census.
Booneville supports a community center, a senior-citizens center, a community hospital, a municipal airport, and new school facilities. Hunting, fishing, camping, hiking, and other outdoors activities are readily available in nearby national forests and state parks.
The city was founded in 1828 when Walter Cauthron, an early explorer of the Arkansas Territory, built a log cabin and store along the Petit Jean River. By some accounts, he intended to name the community as "Bonneville" for friend Benjamin Bonneville, but the spelling and name were later changed. Another theory is that the name was to honor Daniel Boone, a friend of the Logan family for whom the county is named.
The Arkansas State Tuberculosis Sanatorium was established in 1909 about 3 miles (5 km) south of Booneville.