Brattleboro (), originally Brattleborough, is a town in Windham County, Vermont, United States. The most populous municipality abutting Vermont's eastern border with New Hampshire, which is the Connecticut River, Brattleboro is located about 10 miles (16 km) north of the Massachusetts state line, at the confluence of Vermont's West River and the Connecticut. In 2010, Brattleboro's population was 12,046.
Marlboro College Center for Graduate and Professional Studies and SIT Graduate Institute are located in the town. There are satellite campuses of three colleges as well: Community College of Vermont, Union Institute and University, and Vermont Technical College. The town is home to the New England Center for Circus Arts and the Vermont Jazz Center.
The Brattleboro Retreat, a not-for-profit mental health and addictions psychiatric hospital, is also located in the town.
Because Native Americans in the region tended to name places and regions after their rivers or watersheds, the site of today's Brattleboro, the confluence of the West River and the Connecticut River, was called 'Wantastiquet' by the Abenaki people, a name meaning, according to various translations, "lost river", "river that leads to the west", or "river of the lonely way". Today known mostly by its English-translated name, the West River remains demarcated by New Hampshire's towering Mount Wantastiquet, rising 1,000 feet above water level directly opposite its mouth, and Lake Wantastiquet, near where it rises at its source. The Abenaki would transit this area annually between Missisquoi (their summer hunting grounds near the current-day town of Swanton) in northwestern Vermont, and Squakheag (their winter settlement or camps) near what is now Northfield, Massachusetts. The specific Abenaki band who lived here and traversed this place were called Sokoki, meaning "people who go their own way" or "people of the lonely way".