Brownville is a town in Piscataquis County, Maine, United States. The population was 1,250 at the 2010 census. The town includes the villages of Brownville, Knight's Landing and Brownville Junction, near which passes the 100-Mile Wilderness of the Appalachian Trail.
The area was a part of the Waldo Patent purchased by Moses Brown and Major Josiah Hill of Newburyport, Massachusetts, who initiated its settlement. In 1806, they built a dam and watermills on the Pleasant River. First known as township T5 R8 NWP, the community was organized in 1819 as Brownville Plantation. It was named for Francis Brown (nephew of Moses Brown), who was a mill owner and trader from Newbury, Massachusetts. In 1824, the town was incorporated as Brownville.
Early settlers were given 50 acres (200,000 m2) to clear and cultivate. Farms produced hay, oats, potatoes, wheat and garden vegetables. Water power from the Pleasant River attracted industry, including sawmills, clapboard mills, gristmills, a shovel handle factory and a carriage factory.