Canaan is a town in Essex County, Vermont, United States. The population was 972 at the 2010 census, down from 1,078 at the 2000 census. Canaan contains the village of Beecher Falls, located at the confluence of the Connecticut River and Halls Stream. It is part of the Berlin, NH–VT Micropolitan Statistical Area.
Canaan is the northeasternmost town in Vermont, bordered by the Canadian province of Quebec to the north and the U.S. state of New Hampshire to the east. It is one of two towns in Vermont to share a border with both another state and Canada, the other such town being Alburgh in the northwestern corner. Canaan is also the only town in Vermont to share a land border with New Hampshire - the town's far northeastern corner touches the southwestern corner of the town of Pittsburg - as the Connecticut River defines the state line from Canaan southward.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 33.4 square miles (86.6 km2), of which 33.0 square miles (85.5 km2) is land and 0.42 square miles (1.1 km2), or 1.24%, is water.
As of the census of 2000, there were 1,078 people, 441 households, and 306 families living in the town. The population density was 32.5 people per square mile (12.5/km2). There were 650 housing units at an average density of 19.6 per square mile (7.6/km2).