Canterbury is a town in Windham County, Connecticut, United States. The population was 5,234 at the 2010 census.
The area was first settled in the 1680s as Peagscomsuck, consisting mainly of land north of Norwich, south of New Roxbury, Massachusetts (now Woodstock, Connecticut), and west of the Quinebaug River, Peagscomsuck Island, and the Plainfield Settlement. In 1703 it was officially separated from Plainfield and named The Town of Canterbury. The town's name is a transfer from Canterbury, in England.
Canterbury was a very influential town at this period, and was particularly noted for the public spirit and high character of its leading men, and its cultivated and agreeable society. Andrew T. Judson, State attorney and successful lawyer, Dr. [Andrew] Harris, the skillful surgeon. Esquire Frost, the devoted champion of temperance, Rufus Adams, with his fund of dry humor, George S. White, with his strong character and multifarious knowledge, Luther Paine, John Francis, Thomas and Stephen Coit, Samuel L. Hough, all solid men interested in public affairs — had their homes at or near Canterbuiy Green, and gave tone and prominence to the town. Few country towns could boast such social attractions. Dr.