Columbia is a city on the James River in Brown County, South Dakota, United States. The population was 136 at the 2010 census.
An early variant name was Allentown. The city derives its present name from the song "Hail, Columbia".
Columbia is located at 45°36′41″N 98°18′43″W (45.611364, -98.311929).
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.52 square miles (3.94 km2), all land.
Columbia has been assigned the ZIP code 57433 and the FIPS place code 13420.
As of the census of 2010, there were 136 people, 70 households, and 39 families residing in the city. The population density was 89.5 inhabitants per square mile (34.6/km2). There were 80 housing units at an average density of 52.6 per square mile (20.3/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 98.5% White, 0.7% from other races, and 0.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.2% of the population.
There were 70 households, of which 17.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.1% were married couples living together, 8.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 44.3% were non-families.