Dubuque (listen) is the county seat of Dubuque County, Iowa, United States, located along the Mississippi River. In 2019, the population of Dubuque was 57,882.
The city lies at the junction of Iowa, Illinois, and Wisconsin, a region locally known as the Tri-State Area. It serves as the main commercial, industrial, educational, and cultural center for the area. Geographically, it is part of the Driftless Area, a portion of North America that escaped all three phases of the Wisconsinian Glaciation.
Dubuque is a tourist destination featuring the city's unique architecture and river location. It is home to five institutions of higher education, making it a center for culture and learning.
Dubuque has long been a center of manufacturing, but the economy grew rapidly and diversified to other areas in the first years of the 21st century. By 2005, the city led the state and the Midwest in job growth, ranking as the 22nd-fastest growing economy in the US. Alongside industry, the city has large health care, education, tourism, publishing, and financial service sectors.
Spain gained control of the Louisiana Territory west of the Mississippi River following the 1763 defeat of the French in the Seven Years' War; the British took over all territory to the east, as well as Canada.
The first permanent European settler in what is now Dubuque was Quebecois pioneer Julien Dubuque, who arrived in 1785. In 1788, he received permission from the Spanish government and the local Meskwaki American Indians to mine the area's rich lead deposits.