Duson is a town in Acadia and Lafayette parishes in the U.S. state of Louisiana. The locals refere to the town as "The Duce". The population was 1,716 at the 2010 census. The town was named after Curley Duson, a legendary sheriff of St. Landry Parish.
The Lafayette Parish portion of Duson is part of the Lafayette Metropolitan Statistical Area, while the Acadia Parish portion is part of the Crowley Micropolitan Statistical Area.
Originally known as "Duson Station", the town was laid out by J.G. Parkerson, general manager of the Louisiana Western Railroad. By August 30, 1880, the railroad line from New Orleans to Houston was completed, and passenger and freight service began. It merged with the Southern Pacific Railroad in 1900. The village of Duson was incorporated on December 16, 1909, named after the land developer Curley Duson, and installed Adolph De Jean as the first mayor.