Lexington is the largest town in and the county seat of Lexington County, South Carolina, United States. Lexington is a suburb of the state's capital, Columbia. The population was 17,870 at the 2010 Census and it is the second-largest municipality in the greater Columbia area. The 2019 estimated population is 22,157. According to the Central Midlands Council of Governments, the greater Lexington area had an estimated population of 111,549 in 2020 and is considered the fastest-growing area in the Midlands. Lexington's town limits are bordered to the east by the city of West Columbia.
In 1735, the colonial government of King George II established eleven townships in backcountry South Carolina, to encourage settlement, and to provide a buffer between Native American tribes to the West and colonial plantations in the Lowcountry. The townships included one named Saxe Gotha, which flourished with major crops of corn, wheat, tobacco, hemp, and flax, as well as beeswax and livestock. In 1785, the name Saxe Gotha was replaced with Lexington County, in commemoration of the Battles of Lexington and Concord in Massachusetts. The county's first courthouse was built in Granby, but chronic flooding forced the courthouse to move in 1820 to its present location, establishing the community of Lexington Courthouse. The community was incorporated as the Town of Lexington in 1861.