Machias is a town in Cattaraugus County, New York, United States. The population was 2,375 at the 2010 census. Machias is an interior town in the northeast quadrant of the county. It is northeast of the city of Salamanca.
The area that would become Machias was first settled around 1813, and the town was established in 1827 from the town of Yorkshire. In 1847, Machias was increased by additional territory from Yorkshire. Machias received its name from Maine settlers.
The town is located at 42°25′10″N 78°29′40″W.
According to the United States Census Bureau, Machias has a total area of 41.1 square miles (106.4 km2), of which 40.4 square miles (104.7 km2) is land and 0.66 square miles (1.7 km2), or 1.58%, is water.
New York State Route 16 intersects New York State Route 242 at Machias village.
The town of Machias straddles the border of the Mississippi River drainage basin, with the waters of Lime Lake flowing north and then west via Cattaraugus Creek to Lake Erie and eventually the Saint Lawrence Seaway to the Atlantic Ocean, while the waters of Ischua Creek, less than 1 mile (1.6 km) south of Lime Lake, flow south towards the Allegheny River and eventually the Mississippi and Gulf of Mexico.