Madison is a city in and the county seat of Madison County, on the central northern border of Florida, United States. The population was 2,843 at the 2010 census.
The territory now known as Madison County was ruled at various times by Great Britain, Spain, and finally the United States. This area was developed for cotton plantations dependent on the labor of enslaved African Americans. After the Civil War and emancipation, many freedmen and their descendants stayed in the region, working as sharecroppers or tenant farmers.
Racial violence of whites against blacks increased after the Reconstruction era, reaching a peak near the turn of the 20th century. The following blacks were lynched in Madison: Charles Martin, 1 February 1899; both James Denson and his stepson, 7 January 1901; and an unidentified man, 9 February 1906. Twelve blacks were lynched in the county outside the county seat. The late 19th century into the early 20th century was the peak of such murders: it was also the period of suppression of black voting by whites and passage of a state constitution that disenfranchised most black voters by raising barriers to voter registration. Blacks became virtually excluded from politics.