Madison is a borough in Morris County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 15,845, reflecting a drop in population of 685 (−4.1%) from the 16,530 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 680 (+4.3%) from the 15,850 counted in the 1990 Census.
It is known as "The Rose City" and was named in honor of President James Madison.
Madison was ranked 33rd in Money Magazine's 2011 ranking of the "Best Places to Live", the 3rd highest-ranked place in New Jersey and second highest in Morris County behind Montville. New Jersey Monthly magazine ranked Madison first in the state in its 2019 rankings of the "Best Places to Live" in New Jersey.
Often regarded as a college town, along the Florham Park–Madison–Convent Station (Morris Township) area are 3 universities including Drew University, the Florham Campus of Fairleigh Dickinson University and the College of Saint Elizabeth located in Convent Station.
Native Americans occupied the areas that would become New Jersey, and Madison, following the retreat of the Wisconsin Glacier for many thousands of years. Settlements of the Lenape were agriculturally based following matrilineal lines. The protected lands nearby, Jockey Hollow, are what is remaining of the settlement. Occupation changed with the seasons, the variable nature of the climate, and to preserve the fertility of the rich soil. Their fishing and hunting territories were wide-ranging and similarly divided among the three clans of the matrilineal culture in this Eastern Woodland environment. Trade with these native peoples for food and furs was conducted by the Dutch during the period of colonization of New Netherland. Although the European principle of land ownership was not recognized by the Lenape, Dutch West India Company policy required their colonists to purchase land that they settled, but typically, trading relationships were established in this area, rather than Dutch settlements.
During the British colonial period, the earliest settlers of European descent arrived in this portion of the colony of New Jersey.