Neoga is a city in Cumberland County, Illinois, United States. The population was 1,636 at the 2010 census, down from 1,854 at the 2000 census. It is part of the Charleston–Mattoon Micropolitan Statistical Area. The current mayor of Neoga is Tony Kepp.
Neoga was incorporated in 1856. Neoga means "deer" in the Kickapoo language.
Neoga is located in northwestern Cumberland County at 39°19′18″N 88°27′8″W (39.321769, -88.452109). U.S. Route 45 runs through the center of town as Oak Avenue, and Interstate 57 crosses the eastern side of town, with access from Exit 177, where it crosses US 45. Effingham is 14 miles (23 km) to the south, and Mattoon is 13 miles (21 km) to the north.
According to the 2010 census, Neoga has a total area of 1.43 square miles (3.70 km2), all land.
As of the census of 2000, there were 1,854 people, 661 households, and 475 families residing in the city.