Pekin () is a city in and the county seat of Tazewell County in the U.S. state of Illinois. Located on the Illinois River, Pekin is the largest city of Tazewell County and the second most populous municipality of the Peoria metropolitan area, after Peoria itself. As of the 2010 census, its population is 34,094. A small portion of the city limits extend into Peoria County. It is the most populous municipality in the United States with the name Pekin.
Pekin's Mineral Springs Park is near Pekin Hospital and the Miller Senior Center. The city is also home to a high-rise residential facility of the United Auto Workers; the 1,538 megawatt, coal-fired Powerton Power Station (currently owned and operated by NRG Energy), the home of the Pekin Federal Correctional Institution; and the headquarters of a regional insurance company, Pekin Insurance.
In Illinois as elsewhere, indigenous peoples lived along rivers for transportation, water, and fishing. At the time of European exploration, the several historical tribes in the area were of the Anishinaabe-language family, within the larger Algonquian-speaking tribes.
In January 1680, Robert de LaSalle and 33 fellow explorers landed their canoes on the eastern bank of the Illinois River.