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Pensacola is a town in Mayes County, Oklahoma, United States. The population was 125 at the 2010 census. This was a 76 percent increase from 71 at the 2000 census.
The history of Pensacola began about 1840, with the establishment of a way station on the old Texas Road at the Cabin Creek Crossing of the Grand River. Here, Joseph Lynch Martin (a.k.a. "Greenbrier Joe") established a trading post called Pensacola.
The Union Army commandeered Pensacola as a supply station between Fort Scott, Kansas and Fort Gibson, Indian Territory. during the Civil War. Two battles between Union and Confederate forces occurred here, resulting in the destruction of Pensacola.
Greenbrier Joe's son, Richard Martin, reestablished Pensacola in 1896, with a small store and a post office at his home, 3 miles (4.8 km) south of the original location.
In 1909, James Sims Wilson, a settler from Kentucky, established a ranch north of Pensacola and east of Grand River. The Missouri, Oklahoma & Gulf Railroad came to this area in 1912. Its right of way crossed the Wilson ranch, and Wilson began planning a townsite that would be served by the Pensacola post office. He filed the Pensacola townsite plat in the office of the county clerk on April 2, 1912.