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Pineville is a town in and the county seat of Wyoming County, West Virginia, USA, situated along the Guyandotte River. The population was 668 at the 2010 census.
Pineville was settled by William Short in 1853.
In 1863, Hiram Clay first settled near the site of present Pineville. The community was once called Castlerock, and the post office there was once named Rock Castle. The town was renamed Pineville for the local pine forest and incorporated as a town under that name in 1907. It was named because it was built on the site of a black or pitch pine forest.
Pineville became the county seat in 1907, replacing Oceana after a series of disputed elections. Castle Rock, the towering sandstone formation for which Rockcastle Creek is named, is located at Pineville and is the major local landmark. The Wyoming County Courthouse (1916) is on the National Register of Historic Places.
Pineville is located at 37°34′59″N 81°32′7″W (37.582925, −81.535302). The Guyandotte River flows through Pineville, and collects its tributaries Rockcastle Creek and Pinnacle Creek within the town.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.84 square miles (2.18 km2), of which, 0.80 square miles (2.07 km2) is land and 0.04 square miles (0.10 km2) is water.
Many subdivisions or outer areas are considered part of Pineville, including Key Rock, New Richmond, Skin Fork, Mullensville, Glover, Wolf Pen, Rock View, and others, but the town limits are much smaller than the area considered part of Pineville.