Powderly is a census-designated place and unincorporated community in Lamar County, Texas, United States.
Powderly is located on U.S. Highway 271, 9 miles (14 km) north of Paris in north-central Lamar County. Powderly was settled around the time of the Civil War and was originally known as Lenoir. When the St. Louis-San Francisco Railway was built through the area in the 1880s, the community was renamed Powderly in honor of Terence V. Powderly, a labor leader and later a commissioner of immigration in the McKinley administration.
A post office was established in 1888, and by 1890 the town had a general store, two cotton gins, a gristmill, a sawmill, a blacksmith, and an estimated population of thirty. In 1914 the town's population was 100. During the 1920s, however, the community declined; in the early 1930s Powderly had a church, a school, six rated businesses, and a reported sixty-three residents. Since that time the population has increased, reaching 120 in 1950 and 150 in 1965. In 1990 Powderly had a church, a school, a number of houses, and an estimated population of 185.