Powderly is a census-designated place (CDP) and unincorporated community in Lamar County, Texas, United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 1,178.
Powderly is located on U.S. Highway 271, 10 miles (16 km) north of Paris in north-central Lamar County. It is 5 miles (8 km) south of Highway 271's crossing of the Red River at the Oklahoma border.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the Powderly CDP has a total area of 7.5 square miles (19.3 km2), of which 7.3 square miles (18.8 km2) are land and 0.2 square miles (0.5 km2), or 2.49%, are water. The center of town is on a low ridge, draining west to Pat Mayse Lake and east to Pine Creek, a tributary of the Red River.
Powderly was settled around the time of the Civil War and was originally known as "Lenoir". When the St. Louis-San Francisco Railway was built through the area in the 1880s, the community was renamed "Powderly" in honor of Terence V. Powderly, a labor leader and later a commissioner of immigration in the McKinley administration.
A post office was established in 1888, and by 1890 the town had a general store, two cotton gins, a gristmill, a sawmill, a blacksmith, and an estimated population of thirty. In 1914 the town's population was 100.